May 23 2022

Medicinal uses of Chamomile(Matricaria recutita)

Descriptionn     

Manzanilla alemana(<em>Matricaria Recutita</em>)

Chamomile or German chamomile is an annual plant of the family Asteraceae, native to the Balkan Peninsula, from where it spread throughout the world, mainly Europe and temperate Asia. It has adapted to temperate zones of the globe, because it is a plant resistant to sun, cold, nutrient-poor soils and other adverse soil conditions.

The plant has a stem of circular section, about 45-50 cm. tall, with alternate leaves, presenting at the end a chapter with 20 floral elements of radial arrangement with white ligule and yellow disk with a faint fragrance.

Synonymy     

Scientific names of Matricaria Recutita include:

Chamomilla officinalis, Chamomilla recutita, Chrysanthemum chamomilla, Matricaria chamomilla and Matricaria suaveolens.

Common names of this plant include chamomile, camomile, german chamomile,hungarian chamomile, wild chamomile and scented mayweed.

Compositionn     

The plant contains less than 1% essential oil, although may have quite higher proportion in the flowers (2%) . In the essential oil of Matricaria recutita have been characterized at least 40 components, representing 92% of the essential oil [1]. This oil contains up to 50% of alpha-bisabolol (0.1-44.2%), and its derivatives, as bisaboloxides A (3.1-56.0%), B (3.9-27.2%) and C and bisabonoloxide A (0.5-24.8%) , azulenes, such as chamazulene (0.7-15.3%), and matricin guiazulene), flavonoids (apigenin and luteolin and their glycosides and quercetin plus patuletin), coumarins (dioxicumarine, herniarine, umbelliferone) spiroether and polysaccharides[2][3][4][5][6][7]. The aerial parts of chamomile synthesized precursors of 7-methoxycoumarin, a substance with anticoagulant properties[8].

Bisabolol is a substance extracted from the plant with anti-inflammatory properties, but it has also reported observations of contact dermatitis due to this agent[9]. According to some experts, the major component of chamomile recutita is apigenin-7-O-glucoside and alfa bisabolol terpenoids, its oxides and azulene, including chamazulene[10][11][12].

Chamazulene is a natural profen with anti-inflammatory properties, as it is an inhibitor of COX but not COX-1 and is a byproduct of the degradation of proazulenic sesquiterpene lactone e.g. matricin and related compounds [13].

In essential oil of Matricaria recutita were isolated precocenes and piperitone [14], substances which inhibit the production of trichothecenes by the fusarium. In essential oil of the plant has been isolated beta-farnesene, a substance which attracts predators of aphids[15].

Have been identified 11 bioactive phenolic compounds (coumarins: herniarin, umbelliferone; phenylpropanoids: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid; flavones: apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside; flavonols: quercetin, rutin and flavanone: naringenin)[16].

Traditional uses     

For centuries. Matricaria chamomilla's been used in traditional folk medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including various gastrointestinal disorders such as dyspepsia syndrome, gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers[17].

Folk medicine attributes to chamomile properties sedative, anticonvulsant, carminative, antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic[18]. In general, this plant has been employed as anti-inflammatory and intestinal antispasmodic. Locally, it has been used in inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, especially of the anogenital area and skin infections (German Commission E).

Dried flowers are widely used to provide sedative and antispasmodic effects[19]. Infusion of flowers are also used for the relief of coughs and colds, as well as to promote gastric and biliary secretion. Also the stem of this plant is used in the preparation of infusions. The decoction or infusion of chamomile is used for cosmetic purposes (to lighten the hair).

Matricaria chamomilla is one of the most popular plants in the preparation of teas and tisanes for medicinal purposes[10]. Its use is widespread in Latin America[20]. In Germany it is the most consumed medicinal plant, representing nearly a quarter of all botanical resources used.This amount is remarkable by the large consumption of herbal remedies in this country[21]. Other authors confirm this popular acceptance in other parts of the world, including Turkey[22], Serbia[23] and Guatemala[24].

Prevention should be taken with commercial preparations of doubtful origin. A study of adulterants in commercial preparations of chamomile in Brazil shows that 63% of samples contained contaminants, insects or fragmentation of flowers was bad, as a result of excessive handling or poor care. Only half of the samples contain essential oils, while only 20% of these contain phenolic compounds and plant flavonoids[25].

Clinical studies     

57 outpatients were included in a placebo controlled trial, double blind, lasting 8 weeks. It was to analyze the possible role of german chamomile in generalized anxiety syndrome, assessing the patients with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating (HAM-A) and other indicators of less importance. It was observed higher reduction in the group of patients treated with chamomile, statistically significant , and also a favorable change in secondary indicators, compared to placebo. The authors conclude that chamomile has a valuable but modest effect on anxiety in patients with generalized anxiety syndrome[26].

An open trial including three patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder suggests a potential usefulness of chamomile in this syndrome[27]. It has been reported a case of healing of mucositis due to methotrexate treated successfully with wild chamomile rinses[28].

A controlled clinical trial, double-blind, placebo-controlled seems to conclude that in functional dyspepsia combined treatment of four plants, including chamomile flowers, was superior to placebo. However, because the study included other substances in addition to chamomile, it is risky to extrapolate conclusions[29]. Another similar study, with a commercial product containing Chamomile and Angelica Sinensis, seems to offer better results than placebo in treating hot flashes and other manifestations of menopause[30], although more studies would be needed to reach generalizable conclusions.

It has been reported a study in several digestive conditions with acceptable results (chronic gastritis, chronic cholecystitis) by use of a commercial preparation containing various medicinal plants[31]. Such studies do not allow to draw conclusions with respect to a particular plant, as indicated above.

Adverse reactions and interactions     

Adverse reactions

There have been published reports of adverse reactions to chamomile, both as infusion or tisane, and also if applied topically[10]. However, an observational study conducted in Germany suggests that the set of adverse reactions to Asteraceae is probably low or very low[21]. In a total of 7000 prescriptions were recorded only eleven mild adverse reactions(RR=0.13 ;CI 95% : 0.07-0.23)[21].

Among most common reaction with this plant are allergies. Have been described several cases of allergic reactions to chamomile [32] [33], as urticaria and contact dermatitis [34] [35]. Within this class of adverse reactions have been reported cases of occupational type and cross-reactions with various Asteraceae and other botanical families [36] [37] [38]. Have also been published cases of eyelid edema and conjunctivitis by topical application (eye wash) of chamomile tea[39].

There have been published only a few cases of generalized allergic reaction to German chamomile. An article refers to a case of severe anaphylactic reaction in a 38 year old male with generalized urticaria, angioedema, and severe dyspnea an hour after drinking a chamomile tea. The patient had positive skin tests, together with provocation tests and RAST also positive [40]. It has been published also another case of severe anaphylactic reaction in a atopic child 8 years old, due to an infusion of chamomile[41].

It is customary in some countries to give chamomile infusions to infants suffering from intestinal colic. However, one study found that more than 7% of samples of this plant is contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores, although the proportion in the packaged plant in tea bags is less. Although there have been no cases of botulism in infants caused by chamomile, is a matter to be considered[42].

Interactions

Interaction between iron absorption and polyphenols contained in some infusions can significantly inhibit the absorption of ferrous iron. For chamomile, monomeric flavonoids can inhibit up about 50% of iron intake[43].

Matricaria chamomilla is composed in part by coumarin derivatives, so there is a risk of potentiation of the anticoagulant effect when taken in conjunction with this class of drugs. A patient aged 70 year old was admitted to the hospital with multiple internal bleeding while receiving oral anticoagulants and took both teas and chamomile body lotion to relieve symptoms of a catarrhal infection[44].

An in vitro study has shown that various components of Matricaria recutita can inhibit CYP450. Three components of the essential oil, chamazulene, cis-and trans-espiroeter inhibit CYP3A4 and to a lesser extent CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 isoenzymes. In the latter case, only alfabisabolol and chamazulene significantly can inhibit this last[45][46].

Experimental studies     

Antitumor effect

Bisaboloxide A incubated with thymocytes increases the number of dead or damaged cells, many of which can be seen in the initial phase of apoptosis, provided that the concentration of that substance be not greater than 10 microM[47].

The exposure of normal cells to methanol extract of chamomile causes a minimal effect on cell growth, being possible to observe a decrease in cell viability in various cancer cell lines (apoptosis). The main component of the extract, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, inhibited cell growth but to a lesser degree than its predecessor, apigenin [11][48]. It seems that the substance with the stronger effect on apoptosis is geraniol, that probably would be dose and time-dependent[49].

Immunomodulatory effect

The treatment by intraperitoneal injection of camomile extract increased the leukocyte counts in peripheral blood and the bone marrow cellularity. For the authors of the study, the plant would have an immunomodulatory effect on experimental animals[50].

Oral or parenteral administration of chamomile heteropolysaccharide to experimental animal appears to normalize the immune response after immersion or cooling[51].

Chamomile stimulates rosette formation of T lymphocytes in immunodeficient patients[52].

Effect on wound

Experimental studies have recorded significant differences between the groups of animals treated with chamomile and controls with regard to percentage of wound healing by topical treatment with the plant[53][54][55]. In another experimental model, animals treated topically with chamomile showed a more rapid and complete healing compared with corticosteroids[56].

Antibacterial effect

Among herb extracts showing stronger inhibitory activity on Campylobacter jejuni is Matricaria recutita[57].

Chamomile essential oil shows a certain parasite, ovicidal and repellent effect against lice and flies Egyptian water buffalo[58].

A study in vitro revealed that some strains of staph and as many of candida albicans from external ear exudates were sensitive to chamomile[59].

Other experimental study suggests that essential oil of chamomile would act against herpes simplex type 1 virus disrupting its adsorption differently to acyclovir, still very active even against strains acyclovir-resistant[60]. Chamomile, also would produce a growth inhibition of poliovirus, which would be reversible[61][62]. Chamomile also seems to have a virucidal effect against herpes simplex type 2 virus, dose-dependent , presenting a very high selectivity index against it[63].

The extract of matricaria flowers through olive oil inhibits production of urease by the Helicobacter pylori [64]. SHowever, another study places the chamomile in the lower active substances group against helicobacter since the methanolic extract of chamomile's flowers shows a minimum inhibitory concentration of 100 micg/mL[17].

The decoction of chamomile (to 10% concentration) offers a 100% effectiveness in an experimental study on otoacariasis in pets caused by Psoroptes cuniculi[65].

Neuroprotective effect

The methanol extract of Matricaria recutita L. has shown a potent neuroprotective effect against overall cerebral damage caused by oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats[66].

The morphine withdrawal syndrome and weight loss is significantly inhibited by the chronic coadministration of chamomile extract together with morphine. The administration of a single injection of chamomile before testing with naloxone in morphine-dependent animals suppresses withdrawal manifestations. These results suggest that the camomile extract inhibits the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal expression[67].

Apigenin has a specific ability to displace radioligand central locus of benzodiazepine joint. Apigenin reduces GABA in a dose-dependent manner. Available data suggest that apigenin reduces latency in picrotoxin-induced seizures and, administered by injection, reduced locomotor activity without showing muscle relaxant or anticonvulsant anxiolytic effect[19][68].

Hydro-methanolic extract of chamomile has shown to increase the latency period of picrotoxin-induced seizures in laboratory animals, as well as decrease the number and duration of the crisis and delay the death of experimental animals[18].

Apigenin inhibits binding of flunitrazepam to benzodiazepine receptors and have an anxiolytic effect in mice without evidence of muscle relaxation and sedation or anticonvulsant effect[69].

Efecto antidiabético

Matricaria recutita seems to have a significant antihyperglycemic effect in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes as well as a protective effect on beta cells of the pancreas[70]. In a glucose tolerance test, the administration of esculetin (50 mg / kg) completely abolishes the hyperglycemia after 15 and 30 minutes, while chamomile extract (500 mg/kg) and quercetin (50 mg/kg) were less effective. However, the prolonged administration of the latter to streptozotocin diabetic mouse completely prevent the rise of glucose levels. However, the prolonged administration of the latter to streptozotocin diabetic mouse completely prevent the rise of glucose levels. In the authors' opinion, both chamomile extract and some of its components (umbelliferone, esculetin, luteolin and quercetin) could prevent the complications of diabetes mellitus if administered continuously[71].

Psychiatric effects

Results of a pilot study suggest that chamomile may help to experimental animal to recover in stressful situations [72]. Matricaria recutita also shows experimentally a significant inhibition of the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase, which plays an important role in gammaamino butyric acid metabolism[73].

Chamomile also has a mild sedative and anxiolytic effect in experimental animals[74].

Genotoxicity

Alpha Bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol present in chamomile, has shows experimentally to have an antimutagenic effect on certain strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The results seem to suggest that this effect could be due to an inhibitory effect on the metabolic activation of some promutagen agent[75].

Genotoxicity tests for chamomile Matricaria show no effect in drosophila melanogaster[76]. This effect is attributed to phenolic content and its ability to capture acid radicals. Some data suggest that the plant would have more of one antigenotoxic effect.The essential oil of Matricaria Recutita inhibit the changes induced by daunorubicin and methyl methanesulfonate in mouse bone marrow[77].

Antiallergic effect

Continued ingestion of chamomile flowers have an antipruritic effect in the experimental animal treated with a compound named 48/80, a substance that causes itching and scratching[78]. Oral administration of chamomile extract also has a remarkable antipruritic effect in experimental animals[79].

Sasmolytic effect

Spasmolytic effect of chamomile, shown in experimental models, is due to a mechanism not well established[80].

Gastrointestinal effects

Chamomile's extract produces an antiulcer effect, dose dependent, which is associated with a reduction of the acid flow, increased mucin production, increase in the release of prostaglandin E2 and reduction of leukotriene. The effect is due, at least in part, to its content of flavonoids and free radical scavenging properties[81].

Alpha-bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol with a pleasant aroma, seems to also have a gastroprotective effect against injuries caused by alcohol and indomethacin. At oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg markedly attenuated gastric lesions induced by alcohol in 87% and 96% of cases, respectively. Such protection would not be reversible by the administration of these substances[82][83][84].

Matricaria recutita extract shows moderate anti-peristaltic activity in rats, equal or superior to that of loperamide (30-57%), which would support the popular use in Mexico as antidiarrheal[85].

Flavonoids of chamomile (20-80 mg/kg) stimulate bile flow in laboratory animal in a dose-dependent manner, increasing biliary secretion of cholesterol and reducing the lipid content in the liver of rats that live more[86].

Other effects

A preliminary study appreciates the chamomile extract as sunscreen agent [87]. Other experimental research shows that chamazulene has properties as antioxidant and free radical scavenger[88].

As other plants containing flavonoids, chamomile also has a cytotoxic effect in vitro[89].

Several experiments on animal models show the anti-inflammatory effect of chamomile [90] [91]. It has also been experimentally demonstrated an uterotonic effect[92].

Conclusions     

Although studies in experimental models (animal or in vitro) show anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic and spasmolytic effects, studies in humans are very limited and virtually there is not sufficient number of large clinical trials with good methodological rigor. By this reason is lacking enough scientifical evidence on its therapeutic effects beyond the suspicion of possible benefits, yet unproven[10][93].

References     

1: Orav A, Raal A, Arak E. Content and composition of the essential oil of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert from some European countries. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24(1):48-55.
2: Padula LZ, Rondina RV, Coussio JD. Quantitative determination of essential oil, total azulenes and chamazulene in German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) cultivated in Argentina. Planta Med. 1976 Nov;30(3):273-80.
3: Evdokimoff V, Tucci Bucci B, Cavazzutti G. [Analytical study of chemazulene from essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla L]. Farmaco Prat. 1972 Mar;27(3):163-73.
4: Hänsel R, Rimpler H, Walther K. [A lipophilic flavone from chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.)]. Naturwissenschaften. 1966 Jan;53(1):19. Abstract.
5: HOERHAMMER L, WAGNER H, SALFNER B. [New flavone glycosides from chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). 3. Composite and papilionaceous flavones.]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1963 Jan;13:33-6. Abstract.
6: Redaelli C, Formentini L, Santaniello E. HPLC Determination of Coumarins in Matricaria chamomilla. Planta Med. 1981 Dec;43(12):412-3.
7: Redaelli C, Formentini L, Santaniello E. Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Apigenin and its Glucosides in Flowers of Matricaria chamomilla and Chamomile Extracts. Planta Med. 1981 Jul;42(7):288-92.
8: Repcák M, Smajda B, Kovácik J, Eliasová A. Circadian rhythm of Z- and E-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acids and herniarin in leaves of Matricaria chamomilla. Plant Cell Rep. 2009 Jul;28(7):1137-43.
9: Russell K, Jacob SE. Bisabolol. Dermatitis. 2010 Feb;21(1):57-8.
10: McKay DL, Blumberg JB. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.). Phytother Res. 2006 Jul;20(7):519-30.
11: Srivastava JK, Gupta S. Extraction, Characterization, Stability and Biological Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Chamomile Flowers. Mol Cell Pharmacol. 2009 Jan 1;1(3):138.
12: Máday E, Szöke E, Muskáth Z, Lemberkovics E. A study of the production of essential oils in chamomile hairy root cultures. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1999 Oct-Dec;24(4):303-8.
13: Ramadan M, Goeters S, Watzer B, Krause E, Lohmann K, Bauer R, Hempel B, Imming P. Chamazulene carboxylic acid and matricin: a natural profen and its natural prodrug, identified through similarity to synthetic drug substances. J Nat Prod. 2006 Jul;69(7):1041-5.
14: Yaguchi A, Yoshinari T, Tsuyuki R, Takahashi H, Nakajima T, Sugita-Konishi Y, Nagasawa H, Sakuda S. Isolation and identification of precocenes and piperitone from essential oils as specific inhibitors of trichothecene production by Fusarium graminearum. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Feb 11;57(3):846-51.
15: Heuskin S, Godin B, Leroy P, Capella Q, Wathelet JP, Verheggen F, Haubruge E, Lognay G. Fast gas chromatography characterisation of purified semiochemicals from essential oils of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) and Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae). J Chromatogr A. 2009 Apr 3;1216(14):2768-75.
16: Fonseca FN, Tavares MF, Horváth C. Capillary electrochromatography of selected phenolic compounds of Chamomilla recutita. J Chromatogr A. 2007 Jun 22;1154(1-2):390-9.
17: Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Stoia A, Hamill FA, Fabricant D, Dietz BM, Chadwick LR. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Phytother Res. 2005 Nov;19(11):988-91.
18: Heidari MR, Dadollahi Z, Mehrabani M, Mehrabi H, Pourzadeh-Hosseini M, Behravan E, Etemad L. Study of antiseizure effects of Matricaria recutita extract in mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1171:300-4.
19: Avallone R, Zanoli P, Puia G, Kleinschnitz M, Schreier P, Baraldi M. Pharmacological profile of apigenin, a flavonoid isolated from Matricaria chamomilla. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 1;59(11):1387-94.
20: Consolini AE, Ragone MI. Patterns of Self-Medication with Medicinal Plants and Related Adverse Events - A South American Survey. Curr Drug Saf. 2010 Jul 2.
21: Jeschke E, Ostermann T, Lüke C, Tabali M, Kröz M, Bockelbrink A, Witt CM, Willich SN, Matthes H. Remedies containing Asteraceae extracts: a prospective observational study of prescribing patterns and adverse drug reactions in German primary care. Drug Saf. 2009;32(8):691-706.
22: Kültür S. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 4;111(2):341-64. 23: Jaric S, Popovic Z, Macukanovic-Jocic M, Djurdjevic L, Mijatovic M, Karadzic B, Mitrovic M, Pavlovic P. An ethnobotanical study on the usage of wild medicinal herbs from Kopaonik Mountain (Central Serbia). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 20;111(1):160-75.
24: Girón LM, Freire V, Alonzo A, Cáceres A. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Sep;34(2-3):173-87.
25: Brandão MG, Freire N, Vianna-Soares CD. [Surveillance of phytotherapeutic drugs in the state of Minas Gerais. Quality assessment of commercial samples of chamomile]. Cad Saude Publica. 1998 Jul-Sep;14(3):613-6.
26: Amsterdam JD, Li Y, Soeller I, Rockwell K, Mao JJ, Shults J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009 Aug;29(4):378-82.
27: Niederhofer H. Observational study: Matricaria chamomilla may improve some symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Phytomedicine. 2009 Apr;16(4):284-6.
28: Mazokopakis EE, Vrentzos GE, Papadakis JA, Babalis DE, Ganotakis ES. Wild chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) mouthwashes in methotrexate-induced oral mucositis. Phytomedicine. 2005 Jan;12(1-2):25-7.
29: Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, Vinson B, Hotz J. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion. 2004;69(1):45-52.
30: Kupfersztain C, Rotem C, Fagot R, Kaplan B. The immediate effect of natural plant extract, Angelica sinensis and Matricaria chamomilla (Climex) for the treatment of hot flushes during menopause. A preliminary report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2003;30(4):203-6.
31: Krivenko VV, Potebnia GP, Loiko VV. [Experience in treating digestive organ diseases with medicinal plants]. Vrach Delo. 1989 Mar;(3):76-8. Abstract.
32: van Ketel WG. Allergy to Matricaria chamomilla. Contact Dermatitis. 1987 Jan;16(1):50-1.
33: van Ketel WG. Allergy to Matricaria chamomilla. Contact Dermatitis. 1982 Mar;8(2):143.
34: Foti C, Nettis E, Panebianco R, Cassano N, Diaferio A, Pia DP. Contact urticaria from Matricaria chamomilla. Contact Dermatitis. 2000 Jun;42(6):360-1.
35: Rodríguez-Serna M, Sánchez-Motilla JM, Ramón R, Aliaga A. Allergic and systemic contact dermatitis from Matricaria chamomilla tea. Contact Dermatitis. 1998 Oct;39(4):192-3.
36: de la Torre Morín F, Sánchez Machín I, García Robaina JC, Fernández-Caldas E, Sánchez Triviño M. Clinical cross-reactivity between Artemisia vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile). J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2001;11(2):118-22.
37: Krauskopf J, Adámková D. [3 cases of simultaneous contact hypersensitivity to wild chamomite (Matricaria chamomilla) and Frullania tamarisci]. Cesk Dermatol. 1975 Oct;50(5):299-302. Abstract.
38: de Jong NW, Vermeulen AM, Gerth van Wijk R, de Groot H. Occupational allergy caused by flowers. Allergy. 1998 Feb;53(2):204-9.
39: Subiza J, Subiza JL, Alonso M, Hinojosa M, Garcia R, Jerez M, Subiza E. Allergic conjunctivitis to chamomile tea. Ann Allergy. 1990 Aug;65(2):127-32.
40: Andres C, Chen WC, Ollert M, Mempel M, Darsow U, Ring J. Anaphylactic reaction to camomile tea. Allergol Int. 2009 Mar;58(1):135-6.
41: Subiza J, Subiza JL, Hinojosa M, Garcia R, Jerez M, Valdivieso R, Subiza E. Anaphylactic reaction after the ingestion of chamomile tea: a study of cross-reactivity with other composite pollens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989 Sep;84(3):353-8.
42: Bianco MI, Lúquez C, de Jong LI, Fernández RA. Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008 Feb 10;121(3):357-60.
43: Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr. 1999 Apr;81(4):289-95.
44: Segal R, Pilote L. Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla. CMAJ. 2006 Apr 25;174(9):1281-2.
45: Ganzera M, Schneider P, Stuppner H. Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Life Sci. 2006 Jan 18;78(8):856-61.
46: Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine. 2000 Jul;7(4):273-82.
47: Ogata I, Kawanai T, Hashimoto E, Nishimura Y, Oyama Y, Seo H. Bisabololoxide A, one of the main constituents in German chamomile extract, induces apoptosis in rat thymocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2010 Jan;84(1):45-52.
48: Srivastava JK, Gupta S. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chamomile extract in various human cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Nov 14;55(23):9470-8.
49: Izumi S, Takashima O, Hirata T. Geraniol is a potent inducer of apoptosis-like cell death in the cultured shoot primordia of Matricaria chamomilla. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jun 16;259(3):519-22.
50: Ghonime M, Eldomany R, Abdelaziz A, Soliman H. Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of three herbal plants growing in Egypt. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010 May 27.
51: Uteshev BS, Laskova IL, Afanas'ev VA. [The immunomodulating activity of the heteropolysaccharides from German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) during air and immersion cooling]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1999 Nov-Dec;62(6):52-5. Abstract.
52: Kliachko LL, Ankhimova ES, Svitina NN, Iaremenko KV. [The effect of medicinal herbs on lymphocyte rosette-forming function]. Vestn Otorinolaringol. 1994 Mar-Apr;(2):31-3. Abstract.
53: Jarrahi M. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats. Nat Prod Res. 2008 Mar 20;22(5):422-7.
54: Jarrahi M, Vafaei AA, Taherian AA, Miladi H, Rashidi Pour A. Evaluation of topical Matricaria chamomilla extract activity on linear incisional wound healing in albino rats. Nat Prod Res. 2010 May;24(8):697-702.
55: Nayak BS, Raju SS, Rao AV. Wound healing activity of Matricaria recutita L. extract. J Wound Care. 2007 Jul;16(7):298-302.
56: Martins MD, Marques MM, Bussadori SK, Martins MA, Pavesi VC, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Fernandes KP. Comparative analysis between Chamomilla recutita and corticosteroids on wound healing. An in vitro and in vivo study. Phytother Res. 2009 Feb;23(2):274-8.
57: Cwikla C, Schmidt K, Matthias A, Bone KM, Lehmann R, Tiralongo E. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother Res. 2010 May;24(5):649-56.
58: Khater HF, Ramadan MY, El-Madawy RS. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt. Vet Parasitol. 2009 Oct 14;164(2-4):257-66.
59: Nogueira JC, Diniz Mde F, Lima EO. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2008 Jan-Feb;74(1):118-24.
60: Koch C, Reichling J, Kehm R, Sharaf MM, Zentgraf H, Schneele J, Schnitzler P. Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine-kinase-positive and thymidine-kinase-negative herpesviruses. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Nov;60(11):1545-50.
61: Vilaginès P, Delaveau P, Vilaginès R. [Inhibition of poliovirus replication by an extract of Matricaria chamomilla (L)]. C R Acad Sci III. 1985;301(6):289-94.
62: Suganda AG, Amoros M, Girre L, Fauconnier B. [Inhibitory effects of some crude and semi-purified extracts of indigenous French plants on the multiplication of human herpesvirus 1 and poliovirus 2 in cell culture]. J Nat Prod. 1983 Sep-Oct;46(5):626-32.
63: Koch C, Reichling J, Schneele J, Schnitzler P. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2. Phytomedicine. 2008 Jan;15(1-2):71-8.
64: Shikov AN, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarov VG, Kvetnaya AS. Antibacterial activity of Chamomilla recutita oil extract against Helicobacter pylori. Phytother Res. 2008 Feb;22(2):252-3.
65: Macchioni F, Perrucci S, Cecchi F, Cioni PL, Morelli I, Pampiglione S. Acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of camomile flowers, Matricaria chamomilla, against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Med Vet Entomol. 2004 Jun;18(2):205-7.
66: Chandrashekhar VM, Ranpariya VL, Ganapaty S, Parashar A, Muchandi AA. Neuroprotective activity of Matricaria recutita Linn against global model of ischemia in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 17;127(3):645-51.
67: Gomaa A, Hashem T, Mohamed M, Ashry E. Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 May;92(1):50-5.
68: Zanoli P, Avallone R, Baraldi M. Behavioral characterisation of the flavonoids apigenin and chrysin. Fitoterapia. 2000 Aug;71 Suppl 1:S117-23.
69: Viola H, Wasowski C, Levi de Stein M, Wolfman C, Silveira R, Dajas F, Medina JH, Paladini AC. Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects. Planta Med. 1995 Jun;61(3):213-6.
70: Cemek M, Kaga S, Simsek N, Büyükokuroglu ME, Konuk M. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of Matricaria chamomilla L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Nat Med. 2008 Jul;62(3):284-93.
71: Kato A, Minoshima Y, Yamamoto J, Adachi I, Watson AA, Nash RJ. Protective effects of dietary chamomile tea on diabetic complications. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 10;56(17):8206-11.
72: Pinto SA, Bohland E, Coelho Cde P, Morgulis MS, Bonamin LV. An animal model for the study of Chamomilla in stress and depression: pilot study. Homeopathy. 2008 Jul;97(3):141-4.
73: Awad R, Levac D, Cybulska P, Merali Z, Trudeau VL, Arnason JT. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;85(9):933-42.
74: Della Loggia R, Tubaro A, Redaelli C. [Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them]. Riv Neurol. 1981 Sep-Oct;51(5):297-310.
75: Gomes-Carneiro MR, Dias DM, De-Oliveira AC, Paumgartten FJ. Evaluation of mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of alpha-bisabolol in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Mutat Res. 2005 Aug 1;585(1-2):105-12.
76: Romero-Jiménez M, Campos-Sánchez J, Analla M, Muñoz-Serrano A, Alonso-Moraga A. Genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity of some traditional medicinal herbs. Mutat Res. 2005 Aug 1;585(1-2):147-55.
77: Hernández-Ceruelos A, Madrigal-Bujaidar E, de la Cruz C. Inhibitory effect of chamomile essential oil on the sister chromatid exchanges induced by daunorubicin and methyl methanesulfonate in mouse bone marrow. Toxicol Lett. 2002 Sep 5;135(1-2):103-110.
78: Kobayashi Y, Nakano Y, Inayama K, Sakai A, Kamiya T. Dietary intake of the flower extracts of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) inhibited compound 48/80-induced itch-scratch responses in mice. Phytomedicine. 2003 Nov;10(8):657-64.
79: Kobayashi Y, Takahashi R, Ogino F. Antipruritic effect of the single oral administration of German chamomile flower extract and its combined effect with antiallergic agents in ddY mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):308-12.
80: Maschi O, Cero ED, Galli GV, Caruso D, Bosisio E, Dell'Agli M. Inhibition of human cAMP-phosphodiesterase as a mechanism of the spasmolytic effect of Matricaria recutita L. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jul 9;56(13):5015-20.
81: Khayyal MT, el-Ghazaly MA, Kenawy SA, Seif-el-Nasr M, Mahran LG, Kafafi YA, Okpanyi SN. Antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51(7):545-53.
82: Cemek M, Yilmaz E, Büyükokuroglu ME. Protective effect of Matricaria chamomilla on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Pharm Biol. 2010 Jul;48(7):757-63.
83: Moura Rocha NF, Venâncio ET, Moura BA, Gomes Silva MI, Aquino Neto MR, Vasconcelos Rios ER, de Sousa DP, Mendes Vasconcelos SM, de França Fonteles MM, de Sousa FC. Gastroprotection of (-)-alpha-bisabolol on acute gastric mucosal lesions in mice: the possible involved pharmacological mechanisms. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Feb;24(1):63-71.
84: Bezerra SB, Leal LK, Pinto NA, Campos AR. Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection against acute gastric lesions: role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels. J Med Food. 2009 Dec;12(6):1403-6.
85: Calzada F, Arista R, Pérez H. Effect of plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders on charcoal-gum acacia-induced hyperperistalsis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):49-51.
86: Babenko NO, Shakhova OH. [Age-dependent effects of flavonoids on secretory function of the rat liver]. Fiziol Zh. 2005;51(4):65-9. Abstract.
87: Ramos MF, Santos EP, Bizarri CH, Mattos HA, Padilha MR, Duarte HM. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1996 Jun;18(3):87-101.
88: Rekka EA, Kourounakis AP, Kourounakis PN. Investigation of the effect of chamazulene on lipid peroxidation and free radical processes. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1996 Jun;92(3):361-4.
89: Trovato A, Monforte MT, Rossitto A, Forestieri AM. In vitro cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants containing flavonoids. Boll Chim Farm. 1996 Apr;135(4):263-6.
90: Al-Hindawi MK, Al-Deen IH, Nabi MH, Ismail MA. Anti-inflammatory activity of some Iraqi plants using intact rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1989 Sep;26(2):163-8.
91: Shipochliev T, Dimitrov A, Aleksandrova E. [Anti-inflammatory action of a group of plant extracts]. Vet Med Nauki. 1981;18(6):87-94. Abstract.
92: Shipochliev T. [Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants]. Vet Med Nauki. 1981;18(4):94-8. Abstract.
93: Block KI, Gyllenhaal C, Mead MN. Safety and efficacy of herbal sedatives in cancer care. Integr Cancer Ther. 2004 Jun;3(2):128-48.

Fecha de actualización de la página: 11 de agosto de 2010.

Page updated: December 5, 2008.

WARNING ABOUT THIS CONTENT

The information contained in this website does not replace professional advice and guidance from the attending physician, to whom you should consult before making decisions about your health problems. MEDIZZINE cannot warrant or assume any responsibility for the accuracy or comprehensiveness of the information provided. Conversely, MEDIZZINE recognizes that the information provided is not exhaustive and, therefore, does not expose all of the available information and, in any case, cannot replace information and criteria that your doctor may provide you.