July 14 2024

Medicinal uses of Aloe vera (Aloe Barbadensis))


Aloe Vera(<em>Aloe Barbadensis</em>)

Aloe vera, also called Aloe barbadensis is a succulent plant of the lily family, native to northeast Africa, though with some endemism in the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, which has spread in warm areas of all continents, especially in Mexico where it is very popular as a medicinal remedy.

This plant is used as a therapeutic resource popular since ancient times. There is evidence of its use in Sumerian tablets over 2000 years before the Christian era. 100 years before Christ, in China, is used to treat seizures, fever, skin diseases and sinusitis. In times of Dioscorides, the plant was used to treat boils, skin diseases, itching and inflammation in local application. Internally, used for infections and gastric disorders.

It is a perennial, succulent leaves, radial arrangement. Leaves, elongate tapered at its free end, can reach up to 45-50 cm. long and 6-7 cm. thick. Its structure comprises the outer protective layer and sturdy, is concealed under another fibrous, resulting in the yellow bitter substance with laxative properties and the central mass gel rich in water and polymers. When the plant is young, the trunk is virtually nonexistent. As the years go by, we may trace a short trunk, barely visible. The flowers, small, are yellow and have less importance for medical applications.


Scientific names of aloe vera include:

Aloe chinensis, Aloe elongata, Aloe flava, Aloe indica,Aloe lanzae, Aloe littoralis, Aloe maculata, Aloe perfoliata,Aloe rubescens, Aloe variegata y Aloe vulgaris.


The content of the leaves of Aloe Vera substance comprises two types: the one hand, the bitter yellow exudate, used for its laxative effects and from the fibrous layer beneath the bark. On the other, the mucilaginous gel, containing several carbohydrate polymers, among which are glucomannans and pectic acid, and other substances such as alkaloids, triterpenes cyanidins, proanthocyanidins, tannins and saponins[1].

The separation of various components from the pulp by centrifugation sequentially allowed to differentiate three distinct components: thin sheets, microparticles and viscous gel in the following proportions: 16.2%, 0.70% and 83.1%. The gel contains mainly mannan, mannose polymers, of which the main one is the acemannan. Microparticles containing galactose rich polysaccharide and polysaccharide thin films with a high content of galacturonic acid [2] [3] [4].

The gel also contains aloeverosa, a substance of unknown therapeutic properties. Under the same circumstances is a derivative triglycosilated naphthalene, the aloeverósido [5]. The major phytosterols are lofenol gel, 24 lofenol methyl, ethyl lofenol 24, cycloartanol and 24-methylene cycloartanol [6]. Furthermore, aloe vera contains glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins and minerals [2]. It is known only fragmentarily the possible role of each component in the physiological properties of the plant [7].

Aloin (10-glucopyranosyl-1 ,8-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9 (10H)-anthracenone), is a bioactive component of the plant [8]. In industrial processes, to evaluate the quality of aloe is measured the content of this substance[9][10]. Other components are the aloe-emodin (5.13 mg / g), methyl p-coumarato (0.768 mg / g) and 3,4-dihydro-6 ,8-dihydroxyl-[(3s)-2'-acetyl-3'-hydroxyl-5'-methoxy-benzyl]-isocoumarin (1.30 mg / g), the proportions in the plant are given in brackets [11]. Other components are the aloesin and alomanano, attributed to anti-inflammatory properties [12].

Aloe dried flowers contain phenolic type antioxidants such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 5-P-coumaroylquinic, caffeoilshiquinico, 5-feruloylquinic, 5-P-CIS-coumaroylquinic, p-coumaric and ferulic as well as luteolin, apigenin , quercetin, kaempferol, isoorientina, isovitexin and 7-O-glucoside, and lutonarina saponarina. They have also identified the anthranoid aloe-emodin and glucosilcromona aloeresina B, but have not been able to find laxatives Aloina A and B in the dried flowers. The polyphenol content is around 1% and flavonoids approximately 0.3% [13].

An experimental study describes three derivatives malonilglucanos (veracilglucanos A, B and C) as well as some of their properties. Veracilglucano B shows the potent anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative cell [14], while the veracilglucano C has an antiinflammatory effect but opposite to the derivative cellular proliferation B. The scarce veracilglucano obtained from A, and its instability prevented researchers a deeper understanding of the properties of the substance.

Have been isolated two dihidrocumarínicos derivatives, which have shown experimentally antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties [15]. It has also been identified chromone cinnamoyl-C-glycoside chromone that as the entire group of related substances have anti-inflammatory properties and antityrosinase [16].

Possibly, the beta-sitosterol content in the plant is an agent stimulating the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis factor), which would have potentially pharmaceutical applications in the treatment of chronic wounds [17].

Aloesin derivatives between the isorabaicromona have potent antioxidant activity together with feruloilaloesina and p-cumarinaloesina. At least the first component, this activity is due to the caffeoyl group [18].

The aloerid, a polysaccharide of high molecular weight (4-7 million Da), glycosidic whose components include glucose (37.2%), galactose (23.9%), mannose (19.5%) and arabinose (10.3%) possesses in vitro immunostimulatory properties. Despite its low concentration (0.015%) is the substance responsible for the activating effect of the whole juice of the plant [19].

Glycoprotein lectins are structures containing 5% sugar. Aloctina are identified I and II [20]. No therapeutic properties have been described for these substances, nor for aloenina, barbaloin, isobarbaloina and isoaloesina [21] [22].

The presence of arachidonic acid in Aloe Vera, a precursor of various biologically important substances, some authors do venture to the possibility that this plant contains some prostanoids, without these substances have been identified yet [23].

100 grams of fresh aloe vera containing 96.3 mg of citrate and tartrate 158.9. These data suggest to some researchers the ability to use the plant for the treatment and prevention of kidney stones, although no clinical observation supports for now, this application [24].

Properties and traditional applications     

This plant is a medicinal remedy very popular in countries as diverse as Turkey, the United Kingdom, India, United States or Mexico, the latter country where the plant was introduced in the sixteenth century [25] [26] [27 [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36].

Many of the benefits attributed to this plant are due to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves. Its biological activity include the healing of wounds and burns, treatment and prevention of fungal infections, an antidiabetic effect, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, immunomodulatory gastric protective. Aloe is considered a stimulator of gastrointestinal and dermal absorption of some agents, as well as a good vehicle for various dermatological preparations [37] [38]. In some countries is used for the treatment of hypertension and for the treatment of diabetes mellitus [39] [40] [41] [42].

some derived from the Aloe are also used at low concentration as cosmetic ingredients, whose function would be to skin conditioners [43].

Other popular uses include local treatment of abscesses, fairly common practice in America in general and Mexico in particular [44], stomach ulcers [45], psoriasis [46], ulcerative colitis [47] and cancer [48].

The yellow area located just under the skin of the plant has purgative properties, used in some countries such as Trinidad and Tobago as a purgative of birds, among other uses [49] [50]. In parts of Canada, is used to treat digestive diseases for pets and livestock [51].

In situations of poverty, aloe is used by HIV-positive subjects to treat various ailments. Aloe is also one of the plants used by physicians more consumers of this type of resources [52].

On a popular level, the aloe is considered purgative (the yellow stuff under the skin it is), emmenagogue, locally antiinflammatory and antimicrobial emollient, so it is used on burns and wounds. According to the German Commission E, aloe is contraindicated in intestinal obstruction, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis and appendicitis. Aloin an anthraquinone glycoside from the plant acts as a tonic in small doses, but at more is a drastic purgative. Aloe is also used for uterine disorders. Aloe pulp is used in menstrual suppression.

In Ayurvedic medicine, it is recommended to use the dried juice of aloe leaves in dysmenorrhea and liver disease. Also as an anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, for bronchitis, for dermatitis, erysipelas, fever, tumors, eye lesions and splenomegaly.

Aloe dried powder is used as pulp, also as juice, as decoction and extract. Topically, joins the dried powder or jelly to different carrier vehicles.

The applications of aloe vary depending on where used. Thus, the Arabs used the fresh leaves and the juice for fever. In the Caribbean region, is used in the form of gel for constipation, cough and sore throat. In Curaçao is used for gallbladder problems. In Haiti, using an aqueous extract of aloe as antidiabetic, purgative and vermifuge, while in Jamaica and elsewhere in America take a decoction of aloe for colds and biliary disorders. In Peru the gel is applied to burns, conjunctivitis, erysipelas and various inflammations. In the Gulf of Oman is frequently used for swelling of eyelids.

Traditionally, aloe vera flowers are used to treat gastrointestinal disorders (ulcerative colitis, peptic ulcers, constipation, colitis), musculoskeletal complaints (osteoarthritis, bursitis), herpes simplex, diabetes, asthma, post-irradiation mucositis, epilepsy, bleeding, amenorrhea , depression, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, burns, wound healing, psoriasis, sunburn and frostbite.

Clinical Studies     

Burns, ulcers and wounds

In an open study in 30 patients with at least two areas of burn 2nd degree in the body, one of which was treated with silver sulfadiazine and the other with aloe, the rate of re-epithelialization and healing was significantly faster in the treated areas aloe (15.9 + / - 2 vs. 18.73 + / - 2.65 days, respectively, P <0.0001) [53].

The authors of a Cochrane review argue that there is no evidence to support the use of a particular solution for washing wounds over other options [54]. The authors of another systematic review on washing pressure ulcers, claim that there is little evidence to support the use of any particular cleaning solution for this purpose, so you can not make any recommendations about relevant [55 ]. In this sense, a hydrogel of acemannan gave similar results to the use of saline-moistened gauze in the treatment of pressure ulcers [56].

A comparative trial dividing an area of dermabrasion into two: one with and other without aloe vera produced intense vasoconstriction and reduction of edema at the site treated with aloe within 24-48 hours. On the third or fourth day there was less exudate and crusting lower in the treated with aloe. Collectively, these lesions healed 72 hours before. The mechanism of this accelerationis unknown[57]. However, in another clinical trial was a significant delay in healing wounds in the group treated with Aloe vera gel (83 + / - 28 days vs 53 + / - 24 days, P = 0.003)[58]. In a third study, involving 27 patients, the healing time of wounds in patients treated with aloe vera gel was 11.89 days, while those wounds treated with Vaseline gauze was 18.19 days (P <0.002) [59].

A review of the treatment of wounds healed by secondary intention indicates that there is insufficient documentation to support the choice of a topical agent over another to accelerate the healing of wounds [60].

An excellent systematic review on burns, included four trials in the analysis, comprising a total of 371 patients. The average difference in healing time was 8.79 days shorter in the group treated with aloe than the control group (P = 0.006). The authors caution that, due to the difference of products used in the tests, there are no data to establish specific conclusions regarding the aloe vera. However, the cumulative evidence seems to support that this plant can be effective on burns of first and second degree [61].

The results of a non-systematic review, which included experimental studies suggest that administration of oral aloe vera in laboratory mice is effective in wound healing and can decrease the number and size of papillomas, reduce tumor incidence and leshmanias parasitemia of more than 90% in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, but also states that it is not effective in preventing radiation injuries or sunburn. According to the authors, aloe may be effective for the treatment of genital herpes, psoriasis, human papilloma virus, seborrheic dermatitis, aphthous stomatitis, xerosis, lichen planus, frostbite, burns, wound healing and inflammation.

A randomized, comparative trial versus placebo for 4 weeks duration in 49 patients who were removed hemorrhoids and were treated postoperatively with a cream containing aloe vera or placebo record less postoperative pain at 12, 24, 48 hours and 2 weeks, higher degree of healing and less need for analgesics in the group treated with the cream of aloe vera [62].

Radiation injuries

A clinical trial in order to treat radioepitelitis (a disorder caused by radiation) with aloe vera has shown no benefit in the prevention of such disorders[63]. Similarly, other authors are pronounced in a systematic review[64]. The aloe vera does not improve tolerance to head and neck irradiation or decrease mucositis neither seems to improve the welfare of the patient, as indicated by the findings of a controlled clinical trial of phase II in malignant tumors of head and neck[65]. Another phase III trial also concluded that aloe vera does not prevent dermatitis caused by radiation therapy[66].

Aloe vera association with dexpanthenol not offered favorable results in the prevention of mucositis post irradiation [67].

A comparative study on 40 volunteers exposed to ultraviolet radiation showed a greater reduction in erythema aloe-treated group than in patients treated with 1% hydrocortisone. [68] By contrast, a phase III trial in 44 children provides better results in radiation dermatitis with a cream anionic phospholipids [69]. Another study about using aloe on sunburn in 20 volunteers showed comparatively higher efficacy than placebo [70].

Lichens, psoriasis and other dermatoses

Thirty four women suffering vulvar lichen planus were randomly distributed into two groups [71], which were treated for eight weeks with placebo gel and aloe, respectively. Fourteen of the seventeen patients treated with aloe had a good response to treatment, whereas in the placebo group only one patient improved.

Twenty-two patients with oral lichen planus experienced clinical improvement when treated the condition with aloe vera gel, while only 1 of 27 treated with placebo improved [72]. Was published a case involving complete healing with aloe vera for a patient suffering from lichen planus [73].

In another double-blind randomized clinical trial, the cream of aloe vera was more effective than other containing 0.1% triamcinolone in alleviating the symptoms of patients with plaque psoriasis, although the improvement of quality of life was similar [74] . In contrast to this study, another randomized, double-blind placebo controlled indicates that aloe was not superior to placebo in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris of moderate intensity[75]. Another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests that topical application of aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream is more effective than placebo[76].

A study on patients with dry skin and contact dermatitis of occupational origin who were applied gloves with topical extended release aloe experienced clinical improvement while maintaining the integrity of the skin with reduction of small wrinkles and erythema[77]. After ten days of topical application, formulations containing 0.10%, 0.25% and 0.50% aloe increase the water content of the stratum corneum compared to only topical vehicle, so that the authors of the study conclude that the plant can be a useful ingredient to improve skin hydration and treating dry skin[78].

In a phase III clinical trial, including 255 patients with breast cancer, an aqueous cream was significantly better than aloe vera gel applied topically to reduce dry desquamation and postintervention pain after lumpectomy or partial mastectomy [79].

Digestive disorders

A clinical trial of aloe vera for 4 weeks in patients with active ulcerative colitis concluded that this plant produces clinical improvement higher than placebo, also reducing histological activity [80]. However, these data are not conclusive, given the short duration of the study and the small number of patients. By contrast, a clinical trial with aloe in patients with irritable bowel syndrome revealed no benefits of its use [81].

Other applications

An open trial with aloe (n = 16) and benzyl benzoate lotion (n = 14) in the treatment of scabies, showed no difference between the two agents [82]. The low power of the study does not permit extrapolate the results.

A study conducted in 30 patients by analyzing the effect of the application of two different doses of aloe gel on facial wrinkles for 90 days showed an improvement in wrinkles in both groups of patients, also improving facial elasticity in patients received lower doses [83].

Aloe vera containing toothpastes have no effect on the control of gingivitis and plaque compared with fluoride toothpaste[84].

Other authors believe that the use of a hydrophilic substance such as aloe or a vegetable oil rich in vegetable fatty acids is as effective as soft creams with corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone 1% for the treatment of skin reactions [85].

A study of alveolar osteitis in patients treated with a commercial preparation containing a derivative of aloe, the acemannan, appears to reduce the incidence of this type of osteitis compared with foam clindamycin gel[86].

A preliminary study in solid tumors, aloe vera jointly administered with melatonin, suggests that the combination of both agents in untreatable tumors could produce some benefits in terms of survival or stabilization, when no other alternatives are available [87].

Pharmacology and toxicology     


The aloe vera has not shown significant toxicity after acute oral administration, with LD (50) in mice> 200 mg / kg. IV administration required a DL (50) in mice> 80 mg / kg. Subacute administration data were similar. 3 months administration of 100 mg / Kg of ethanol extract of aloe vera caused reproductive damage, inflammation and increased mortality in control animals. Although is proved phototoxicity of anthraquinone derivatives produced by aloe, several studies have shown no signs of it, indicating that the concentration of these substances is too low to induce photoreactions[43]. Moreover, a UV photo-irradiation induces the formation of free radicals, superoxide and induction of lipid peroxidation, which suggests that intake of aloe products may increase sensitivity to ultraviolet light [88].

Aloe vera gel contains cytotoxic compounds of low molecular weight comparable to the aleoe-emodin and aloin[89].

Acute administration produced only logical acemanan discomfort of an injection [90]. Subchronic administration did not produce significant alterations in experimental animals [91].

Side effects

Diarrhea was the only common side effect in patients using aloe to treat asthma, diabetes, heart disease, ulcers, skin diseases or cancer. Have been isolated cases of eczema, contact urticaria and dermatitis in patients treated with aloe topically [43][92].

It was published a case involving severe hepatitis by consumption of aloe in a male of 26 years who was consuming aloe infusion 2-4 weeks before symptoms [93]. Another possible case of hepatitis in a woman aged 73, admitted to hospital for acute hepatitis, which doctors consider possibly caused by capsules of aloe that the patient was taking to relieve constipation [94]. It was published a third case of acute hepatitis associated with taking aloe in a woman of 57, who was cured after stop taking[95].

Another case, in a woman of 72 years, started by dermatitis on the legs, followed by an eruption of the eyelids. The patient prepared aloe juice of homemade form that was applied to the legs for relieving the discomfort of peripheral venous insufficiency. Patch tests showed allergy to sheet and aloe jelly, as well as nickel sulfate [96].

It was published a case of Schoenlein-Henoch purpura in an adult who received aloe vera [97].

Three women and a man between 40 and 60 years had an intense burning sensation after topical application of aloe vera or vitamin E in an area of ??skin that underwent dermabrasion. One patient with severe dermatitis required hospitalization and corticoids. Full recovery took about three months. One patient reapplied Vitamin E two years later without any adverse effects [98].


The test results indicate that the aloe improves absorption of vitamins E and C. Aloe slows the absorption process, which ensures that the vitamins remain longer in the plasma [99].

It has been published a case of possible interaction between sevoflurane and aloe. As it is known, aloe produces a reduction in prostaglandin synthesis, which in turn inhibits platelet aggregation, basic phenomenon in the process of blood coagulation. Sevoflurane inhibits thromboxane formation, which, on another level, is also involved in the clotting process. A 35 year old patient, operated on a hemangioma, suffered the loss of five liters of blood during surgery by the concurrence of taking aloe, sevoflurane and conditions of the tumor[100].

Experimental studies     

Antioxidant effects

Numerous experimental observations have described the antioxidant effect of aloe vera, relating even to the ancient use of the plant [101] [102] [103].

The antioxidant effect is tied to certain compounds, such as tocopherol, flavonoids, carotenoids, total phenolic content and ascorbic acid. While the extract shows significant antioxidant capacity, the inner part of the blade has no [104]. Aloe essential oil has the highest lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (95%) [105]. The glycoprotein fraction of aloe vera shows a free radical scavenger action caused by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system as well as inhibition of COX-2 and a reduction of thromboxane A2 synthetase in vitro [106]. The antioxidant capacity is related to the content of polysaccharides and flavonoids, which in turn are with the age of the plant, being maximum at 3 or 4 years of the plant [107].

Effects on the nervous system

Some experimental studies suggest a protective effect of Aloe Vera on the cells of the nervous system [108] or a positive influence on animal models of human neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis [109].

Immunological Effects

Have been published several scientific papers on the stimulatory activity of the defenses from the aloe vera in experimental animals [110] [111]. Some authors see in this property potential applications in inflammatory and infectious processes or tumors[112].

have been identified some of the substances responsible for these effects, such as acemannan and other polysaccharides, which stimulate the phagocytic activity of macrophages in the laboratory animal, plus lymphocyte response to antigenic stimuli and anticandidiasis effects[113][114][115][116].

Yellow juice of aloe vera stimulates or restores the cellular immune response and phagocytosis, both immunosuppressed and normal animals. The Aloctine A is another substance with immunostimulatory properties of Aloe vera[29].

Angiogenic effect

It has been identified in various experimental studies an angiogenic agent(beta-sitosterol) in Aloe vera plant, which could be applied, at least in theory, in the repair of damaged blood vessels and in wound healing[17][117][118]. Angigenic effect would result in a decrease in primary ovarian follicles and increase in secondary follicles. Aloe vera behave also as FSH [119]. In contrast, has been described an antiangiogenic aloe-emodin component[120].

Antiulcer effect

It has been described antiulcer effect of aloe vera in experimental models. According to the findings of one study, Aloe vera reduces the level of TNF-alpha, increases IL-10 and promotes healing of gastric ulcers in experimental animals [121]. According to the observations of another experimental study, AV has gastric antisecretory activity, which protect the gastric mucosa against mild to moderate aggressions[122].

Hepatoprotective effect

The aloe hepatoprotective effect has been analyzed in some studies [123] [124] [125] [126] [127]. In general, the results of animal experiments are encouraging, both in prevention and treatment of liver injury, and could result in lines of work in clinical trials.

Protective effect against radiation

Aloe may be protected, at least in part, against ionizing radiation and UV-B type [128] [129].

Effect on wounds and burns

There is a considerable number of publications about the healing of wounds and burns through aloe vera, alone or combined with other healing medium [130][131][132][133][134] [135][136][137].

For some authors in experimental animal diabetes, healing stimulation is due to the improvement of the plant induced diabetes [138]. For others, the substance responsible for the stimulatory effect of wound healing is a glycoprotein[139]. Furthermore, the acemannan stimulates the growth of fibroblasts, basic cells in healing processes, especially in the oral cavity[37].

Compared to sulfadiazine cream, aloe increase significantly the degree of re-epithelialization of burns in laboratory animals[140][141]. Other observations indicate similar results compared to different methods of treatment [142]. Furthermore, the aloe vera may offset the delayed wound healing caused by sulfadiazine [143].

Anti-inflammatory effect

Several publications indicate the anti-inflammatory effect of aloe vera, either applied locally or internal use[144][145][146][147][148]. Plant inhibit bacterial cytokines that would trigger the inflammation process [149], either by inhibiting the adhesion of leukocytes or leukocyte-endothelium interactions[150][151] or by the effect antilipoxigenasa [152] or by a effect on arachidonic acid synthesis via COX[153].

Some authors hypothesize that there are specific anti-inflammatory substances, perhaps in the supernatant of the extract of the plant[154]. Aloe vera has been effective in vitro for the treatment of inflamed colorectal mucosa[155].

Antimicrobial effect

It has been described an effect against multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis[2]. Other studies have investigated the susceptibility of various strains of bacteria to aloe vera, including Shigella flexneri, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli[156][157][158][159].

Regarding the oral bacterial flora, a preliminary study indicates that the toothpaste with or without aloe have similar effectiveness [160]. Nor have demonstrated superior antibacterial action soaps to which has been added aloe vera[161].

Aloe protect against experimental systemic infection, but rather by affecting certain mediators (TNF, IL) with a direct action on the germs. [162]

The aloe has shown remarkable activity against various classes of Leishmania, as L.Donovani, Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum[163][164][165].

Antidiabetic effect

Aloe oral administration seems to prevent the progression of mouse experimental diabetes mellitus[166]. The continuous administration of high doses of aloe in mice with experimental diabetes caused by streptozotocin normalizes enzymatic parameters, glucose, lipids and insulin levels [167][168].

Aloe extracts rich in polyphenols decreased the weight of laboratory animals, the levels of glucose and insulin resistance[169].

Several data are suggestive of the existence of one or more substances with antidiabetic properties in aloe gel[170]. Some researchers link the antidiabetic effect with a fraction of 10 kDa [171]. Five phytosterols of aloe vera (lofenol 24 lofenol methyl, ethyl lofenol 24, cycloartanol and 24-methylene-cycloartanol) have demonstrated a remarkable antidiabetic effect, reducing the glycemic values until?less than half of the values in the controls in almost all cases[6]. Some researchers suggest that the antidiabetic effect could be due to an action on the enzymes that catalyze carbohydrate and not on insulin secretion[172].

Aloe not only have the property to normalize blood glucose in laboratory animals but also prevent renal and hepatic lesions caused by diabetes[173][174]. Interestingly, a study shows that the gel leaf extract have a hyperglycemic effect, while the pulp would have, on the contrary, an antidiabetic effect[175].

The aloe-emodin would have an antiangiogenic effect, which depend on their antitumor effect [119] Other authors relate the antitumor effect of this substance with the suppression of c-myc[176].

Antitumoral effect

It has been demonstrated chemopreventive effect of aloe against skin papilloma caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene. The aloe leaf extract would decrease the number and size of papillomas[177]. Aloe vera would exert a preventative effect on the liver carcinogenesis[178].

aloin, a natural anthracycline obtained from aloe vera, would have an antitumor effect due to the normalization of antioxidant enzyme function[179]. The aloctin I, a lectin of the pulp of aloe, act preventively on mouse Ehrlich tumor, possibly due to its immunomodulatory action[180][181]. Aloe-emodin induce cell death in certain human gastric, nervous and bladder cancer[182][183][184][185][186][187]. A similar effect of this substance would have the substance diethylhexylphthalate, an agent isolated from aloe vera on certain human leukemia cell lines[188][189].

Some authors have speculated that the optimum size of the polysaccharides with antitumoral and immunomodulatory effect would be between 400 and 5 kDa[190].

Other effects

Aloe vera may be beneficial for the protection of the epithelial cells, promoting progression and maturation of the integument[191]. The acemannan, a polysaccharide from Aloe vera may also exert an effect on ripening immature dendritic cells[192]. Complementarily, aloe extract increase the proliferation and collagen synthesis in human skin cells[193].

A study has shown that aloe gel contains small molecules that could prevent skin immunosuppression induced by UV type B, which may have a restorative effect[194] In contrast, aloe-emodin could have a phototoxic effect[195].

The aloe may have thyroid-slowing effects, although it is premature to speak of well defined antithyroid effects[196]. Other possible local effects suggest a positive influence on allergic rhinitis[197]. Laboratory animals treated with a dietary supplement of aloe reduced their cholesterol levels [198]. None of these effects has been well documented to induce people design trials.

A polymer derived from aloe increase survival in animals with lethal hemorrhagic shock[199][200]. A similar effect has been observed in rats with acute myocardial infarction [201].

Acemannan in experimental animals stimulates proliferation of dental pulp cells and mineralization and the formation of dentine[202].

Pretreatment with aloe vera juice does not improve ketoprofen penetration through the skin[203]. Other observations have opposite sign. So, for oxybutynin, colchicine and quinine, there would be a noticeable increase skin absorption[204]. Other experimental data suggest that the aloe vera intestinal increases penetration of various substances, which may lead to adverse effects caused by the increase in bioavailability of these agents[205].


There is available a considerable number of observations, open trials and clinical trials of good methodology that seem to support the efficacy and safety of aloe vera. However, most experts believe that the information available in the various fields of application is insufficient to establish beyond any doubt the efficacy and safety of using this plant and clarify the myth that exists around it[1][2][206][207]. It is necessary to deepen the knowledge of its therapeutic properties[208].


1: Grindlay D, Reynolds T. The Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986 Jun;16(2-3):117-51.
2: Rodríguez Rodríguez E, Darias Martín J, Díaz Romero C. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Apr;50(4):305-26.
3: McConaughy SD, Stroud PA, Boudreaux B, Hester RD, McCormick CL. Structural characterization and solution properties of a galacturonate polysaccharide derived from Aloe vera capable of in situ gelation. Biomacromolecules. 2008 Feb;9(2):472-80.
4: Ni Y, Turner D, Yates KM, Tizard I. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 20;4(14):1745-55.
5: Yang QY, Yao CS, Fang WS. A new triglucosylated naphthalene glycoside from Aloe vera L. Fitoterapia. 2010 Jan;81(1):59-62.
6: Tanaka M, Misawa E, Ito Y, Habara N, Nomaguchi K, Yamada M, Toida T, Hayasawa H, Takase M, Inagaki M, Higuchi R. Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic compounds. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Jul;29(7):1418-22.
7: Eshun K, He Q. Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries--a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2004;44(2):91-6.
8: Kumar S, Matharasi DP, Gopi S, Sivakumar S, Narasimhan S. Synthesis of cytotoxic and antioxidant Schiff's base analogs of aloin. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010 May;12(5):360-70.
9: Ramírez Durón R, Ceniceros Almaguer L, Cavazos Rocha NC, Silva Flores PG, De Torres NW. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic methods for determination of aloin in herbal products containing Aloe vera. J AOAC Int. 2008 Nov-Dec;91(6):1265-70.
10: Bergamante V, Ceschel GC, Marazzita S, Ronchi C, Fini A. Effect of vehicles on topical application of aloe vera and arnica montana components. Drug Deliv. 2007 Oct;14(7):427-32.
11: Yang Y, Wang H, Guo L, Chen Y. Determination of three compounds in Aloe vera by capillary electrophoresis. Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Mar;18(2):112-6.
12: Yagi A, Takeo S. [Anti-inflammatory constituents, aloesin and aloemannan in Aloe species and effects of tanshinon VI in Salvia miltiorrhiza on heart]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2003 Jul;123(7):517-32. Abstract.
13: Keyhanian S, Stahl-Biskup E. Phenolic constituents in dried flowers of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) and their in vitro antioxidative capacity. Planta Med. 2007 Jun;73(6):599-602.
14: Esua MF, Rauwald JW. Novel bioactive maloyl glucans from aloe vera gel: isolation, structure elucidation and in vitro bioassays. Carbohydr Res. 2006 Feb 27;341(3):355-64.
15: Zhang XF, Wang HM, Song YL, Nie LH, Wang LF, Liu B, Shen PP, Liu Y. Isolation, structure elucidation, antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties of two novel dihydrocoumarins from Aloe vera. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Feb 15;16(4):949-53.
16: Pan X, Cao X, Dong Y, Zhao H. [Preparative isolation and purification of cinnamoyl-C-glycoside chromone from aloe vera by high-speed countercurrent chromatography]. Se Pu. 2005 Jan;23(1):96-9. Abstract.
17: Moon EJ, Lee YM, Lee OH, Lee MJ, Lee SK, Chung MH, Park YI, Sung CK, Choi JS, Kim KW. A novel angiogenic factor derived from Aloe vera gel: beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Angiogenesis. 1999;3(2):117-23.
18: Yagi A, Kabash A, Okamura N, Haraguchi H, Moustafa SM, Khalifa TI. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of aloesin derivatives in Aloe vera. Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):957-60.
19: Pugh N, Ross SA, ElSohly MA, Pasco DS. Characterization of Aloeride, a new high-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Aloe vera with potent immunostimulatory activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Feb;49(2):1030-4.
20: Akev N, Can A. Separation and some properties of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp lectins. Phytother Res. 1999 Sep;13(6):489-93.
21: Kuzuya H, Tamai I, Beppu H, Shimpo K, Chihara T. Determination of aloenin, barbaloin and isobarbaloin in aloe species by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001 Mar 5;752(1):91-7.
22: Yuan AX. The molecular structure of iso-aloesin isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berge. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Oct;18(10):609-11, 639. Abstract.
23: Afzal M, Ali M, Hassan RA, Sweedan N, Dhami MS. Identification of Some Prostanoids in Aloe vera Extracts. Planta Med. 1991 Feb;57(1):38-40.
24: Kirdpon S, Kirdpon W, Airarat W, Thepsuthammarat K, Nanakorn S. Changes in urinary compositions among children after consuming prepared oral doses of aloe (Aloe vera Linn). J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Aug;89(8):1199-205.
25: Arýkan D, Sívríkaya SK, Olgun N. Complementary alternative medicine use in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Erzurum, Turkey. J Clin Nurs. 2009 Aug;18(15):2136-44.
26: Singh A, Singh PK. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Chandauli District of Uttar Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 21;121(2):324-9.
27: Rivera JO, Ortiz M, González-Stuart A, Hughes H. Bi-national evaluation of herbal product use on the United States/México border. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(3-4):91-106.
28: Zhang AL, Story DF, Lin V, Vitetta L, Xue CC. A population survey on the use of 24 common medicinal herbs in Australia. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2008 Oct;17(10):1006-13.
29: Oronzo-Barocio A, Zaitseva G, Chavez-Anaya A, Arceta-Gonzalez VI, Puebla-Perez AM, Alfaro-Bustamante F, Zimina IV, Arion VY. Modulation of Immune Response of BALB/Mice Bearing Lymphoma L5178Y Treated with Bitter Yellow Juice of Aloe vera (L) in vivo. Russ J Immunol. 1999 Apr;4(1):43-50.
30: Ortiz BI, Clauson KA. Use of herbs and herbal products by Hispanics in south Florida. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2006 Mar-Apr;46(2):161-7.
31: Lohse B, Stotts JL, Priebe JR. Survey of herbal use by Kansas and Wisconsin WIC participants reveals moderate, appropriate use and identifies herbal education needs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Feb;106(2):227-37.
32: Zenk SN, Shaver JL, Peragallo N, Fox P, Chávez N. Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women. Health Care Women Int. 2001 Sep;22(6):585-97.
33: Zeilmann CA, Dole EJ, Skipper BJ, McCabe M, Low Dog T, Rhyne RL. Use of herbal medicine by elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Apr;23(4):526-32.
34: Shakeel M, Little SA, Bruce J, Ah-See KW. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatric otolaryngology patients attending a tertiary hospital in the UK. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Nov;71(11):1725-30.
35: Brown JS, Marcy SA. The use of botanicals for health purposes by members of a prepaid health plan. Res Nurs Health. 1991 Oct;14(5):339-50.
36: Shakeel M, Trinidade A, Jehan S, Ah-See KW. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients attending a general otolaryngology clinic: can we afford to ignore it? Am J Otolaryngol. 2009 Jun 9.
37: Jettanacheawchankit S, Sasithanasate S, Sangvanich P, Banlunara W, Thunyakitpisal P. Acemannan stimulates gingival fibroblast proliferation; expressions of keratinocyte growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and type I collagen; and wound healing. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Apr;109(4):525-31.
38: Hamman JH. Composition and applications of Aloe vera leaf gel. Molecules. 2008 Aug 8;13(8):1599-616.
39: Amira OC, Okubadejo NU. Frequency of complementary and alternative medicine utilization in hypertensive patients attending an urban tertiary care centre in Nigeria. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Sep 28;7:30. 40: Lans CA. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006 Oct 13;2:45.
41: Coronado GD, Thompson B, Tejeda S, Godina R. Attitudes and beliefs among Mexican Americans about type 2 diabetes. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2004 Nov;15(4):576-88.
42: Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jun;81(1):81-100.
43: Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. Int J Toxicol. 2007;26 Suppl 2:1-50.
44: Pollini RA, Gallardo M, Hasan S, Minuto J, Lozada R, Vera A, Zúñiga ML, Strathdee SA. High prevalence of abscesses and self-treatment among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 6.
45: Avijgan M. Phytotherapy: an alternative treatment for non-healing ulcers. J Wound Care. 2004 Apr;13(4):157-8.
46: Morelli V, Calmet E, Jhingade V. Alternative therapies for common dermatologic disorders, part 2. Prim Care. 2010 Jun;37(2):285-96.
47: Langmead L, Rampton DS. Review article: complementary and alternative therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Feb 1;23(3):341-9.
48: Ezeome ER, Anarado AN. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by cancer patients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Sep 12;7:28.
49: Lans C, Georges K, Brown G. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2007 Jun;39(5):375-85.
50: Lans C, Brown G. Observations on ethnoveterinary medicines in Trinidad and Tobago. Prev Vet Med. 1998 May 1;35(2):125-42.
51: Lans C, Turner N, Khan T, Brauer G. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada. Vet Parasitol. 2007 Sep 30;148(3-4):325-40.
52: Gardiner P, Legedza A, Woods C, Phillips RS, Kemper KJ. Herb use among health care professionals enrolled in an online curriculum on herbs and dietary supplements. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):51-64.
53: Khorasani G, Hosseinimehr SJ, Azadbakht M, Zamani A, Mahdavi MR. Aloe versus silver sulfadiazine creams for second-degree burns: a randomized controlled study. Surg Today. 2009;39(7):587-91.
54: Moore ZE, Cowman S. Wound cleansing for pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD004983.
55: Moore Z, Cowman S. A systematic review of wound cleansing for pressure ulcers. J Clin Nurs. 2008 Aug;17(15):1963-72.
56: Thomas DR, Goode PS, LaMaster K, Tennyson T. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial. Adv Wound Care. 1998 Oct;11(6):273-6.
57: Fulton JE Jr. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1990 May;16(5):460-7.
58: Schmidt JM, Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jul;78(1):115-7.
59: Visuthikosol V, Chowchuen B, Sukwanarat Y, Sriurairatana S, Boonpucknavig V. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995 Aug;78(8):403-9.
60: Vermeulen H, Ubbink D, Goossens A, de Vos R, Legemate D. Dressings and topical agents for surgical wounds healing by secondary intention. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003554.
61: Maenthaisong R, Chaiyakunapruk N, Niruntraporn S, Kongkaew C. The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing: a systematic review. Burns. 2007 Sep;33(6):713-8.
62: Eshghi F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Rahmani N, Khademloo M, Norozi MS, Hojati O. Effects of Aloe vera cream on posthemorrhoidectomy pain and wound healing: results of a randomized, blind, placebo-control study. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jun;16(6):647-50.
63: Chargari C, Fromantin I, Kirova YM. [Importance of local skin treatments during radiotherapy for prevention and treatment of radio-induced epithelitis]. Cancer Radiother. 2009 Jul;13(4):259-66.
64: Richardson J, Smith JE, McIntyre M, Thomas R, Pilkington K. Aloe vera for preventing radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic literature review. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2005 Sep;17(6):478-84.
65: Su CK, Mehta V, Ravikumar L, Shah R, Pinto H, Halpern J, Koong A, Goffinet D, Le QT. Phase II double-blind randomized study comparing oral aloe vera versus placebo to prevent radiation-related mucositis in patients with head-and-neck neoplasms. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Sep 1;60(1):171-7.
66: Williams MS, Burk M, Loprinzi CL, Hill M, Schomberg PJ, Nearhood K, O'Fallon JR, Laurie JA, Shanahan TG, Moore RL, Urias RE, Kuske RR, Engel RE, Eggleston WD. Phase III double-blind evaluation of an aloe vera gel as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1996 Sep 1;36(2):345-9.
67: Dörr W, Schlichting S, Bray MA, Flockhart IR, Hopewell JW. Effects of dexpanthenol with or without Aloe vera extract on radiation-induced oral mucositis: preclinical studies. Int J Radiat Biol. 2005 Mar;81(3):243-50.
68: Reuter J, Jocher A, Stump J, Grossjohann B, Franke G, Schempp CM. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe vera gel (97.5%) in the ultraviolet erythema test. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;21(2):106-10.
69: Merchant TE, Bosley C, Smith J, Baratti P, Pritchard D, Davis T, Li C, Xiong X. A phase III trial comparing an anionic phospholipid-based cream and aloe vera-based gel in the prevention of radiation dermatitis in pediatric patients. Radiat Oncol. 2007 Dec 19;2:45.
70: Puvabanditsin P, Vongtongsri R. Efficacy of aloe vera cream in prevention and treatment of sunburn and suntan. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005 Sep;88 Suppl 4:S173-6.
71: Rajar UD, Majeed R, Parveen N, Sheikh I, Sushel C. Efficacy of aloe vera gel in the treatment of vulval lichen planus. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008 Oct;18(10):612-4.
72: Choonhakarn C, Busaracome P, Sripanidkulchai B, Sarakarn P. The efficacy of aloe vera gel in the treatment of oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2008 Mar;158(3):573-7.
73: Hayes SM. Lichen planus--report of successful treatment with aloe vera. Gen Dent. 1999 May-Jun;47(3):268-72.
74: Choonhakarn C, Busaracome P, Sripanidkulchai B, Sarakarn P. A prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing topical aloe vera with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Feb;24(2):168-72.
75: Paulsen E, Korsholm L, Brandrup F. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005 May;19(3):326-31.
76: Syed TA, Ahmad SA, Holt AH, Ahmad SA, Ahmad SH, Afzal M. Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health. 1996 Aug;1(4):505-9.
77: West DP, Zhu YF. Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure. Am J Infect Control. 2003 Feb;31(1):40-2.
78: Dal'Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM. Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques. Skin Res Technol. 2006 Nov;12(4):241-6.
79: Heggie S, Bryant GP, Tripcony L, Keller J, Rose P, Glendenning M, Heath J. A Phase III study on the efficacy of topical aloe vera gel on irradiated breast tissue. Cancer Nurs. 2002 Dec;25(6):442-51.
80: Langmead L, Feakins RM, Goldthorpe S, Holt H, Tsironi E, De Silva A, Jewell DP, Rampton DS. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr 1;19(7):739-47.
81: Davis K, Philpott S, Kumar D, Mendall M. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of aloe vera for irritable bowel syndrome. Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Sep;60(9):1080-6.
82: Oyelami OA, Onayemi A, Oyedeji OA, Adeyemi LA. Preliminary study of effectiveness of aloe vera in scabies treatment. Phytother Res. 2009 Oct;23(10):1482-4.
83: Cho S, Lee S, Lee MJ, Lee DH, Won CH, Kim SM, Chung JH. Dietary Aloe Vera Supplementation Improves Facial Wrinkles and Elasticity and It Increases the Type I Procollagen Gene Expression in Human Skin in vivo. Ann Dermatol. 2009 Feb;21(1):6-11.
84: de Oliveira SM, Torres TC, Pereira SL, Mota OM, Carlos MX. Effect of a dentifrice containing Aloe vera on plaque and gingivitis control. A double-blind clinical study in humans. J Appl Oral Sci. 2008 Jul-Aug;16(4):293-6.
85: Maddocks-Jennings W, Wilkinson JM, Shillington D. Novel approaches to radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: a literature review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2005 Nov;11(4):224-31.
86: Poor MR, Hall JE, Poor AS. Reduction in the incidence of alveolar osteitis in patients treated with the SaliCept patch, containing Acemannan hydrogel. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Apr;60(4):374-9; discussion 379.
87: Lissoni P, Giani L, Zerbini S, Trabattoni P, Rovelli F. Biotherapy with the pineal immunomodulating hormone melatonin versus melatonin plus aloe vera in untreatable advanced solid neoplasms. Nat Immun. 1998;16(1):27-33.
88: Xia Q, Yin JJ, Fu PP, Boudreau MD. Photo-irradiation of Aloe vera by UVA--formation of free radicals, singlet oxygen, superoxide, and induction of lipid peroxidation. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Jan 30;168(2):165-75.
89: Avila H, Rivero J, Herrera F, Fraile G. Cytotoxicity of a low molecular weight fraction from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel. Toxicon. 1997 Sep;35(9):1423-30.
90: Fogleman RW, Chapdelaine JM, Carpenter RH, McAnalley BH. Toxicologic evaluation of injectable acemannan in the mouse, rat and dog. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1992 Jun;34(3):201-5.
91: Fogleman RW, Shellenberger TE, Balmer MF, Carpenter RH, McAnalley BH. Subchronic oral administration of acemannan in the rat and dog. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1992 Apr;34(2):144-7.
92: Ernst E. Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology. Br J Dermatol. 2000 Nov;143(5):923-9.
93: Curciarello J, De Ortúzar S, Borzi S, Bosia D. Severe acute hepatitis associated with intake of Aloe vera tea. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Aug-Sep;31(7):436-8.
94: Bottenberg MM, Wall GC, Harvey RL, Habib S. Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Oct;41(10):1740-3.
95: Rabe C, Musch A, Schirmacher P, Kruis W, Hoffmann R. Acute hepatitis induced by an Aloe vera preparation: a case report. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan 14;11(2):303-4.
96: Ferreira M, Teixeira M, Silva E, Selores M. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera. Contact Dermatitis. 2007 Oct;57(4):278-9.
97: Cholongitas E, Katsoudas S, Dourakis S. Henoch-Schonlein purpura associated with Aloe vera administration. Eur J Intern Med. 2005 Feb;16(1):59-60. Erratum in: Eur J Intern Med. 2009 Oct;20(6):e145. Spyros, Katsoudas [corrected to Katsoudas, Spyros]; Spyros, Dourakis [corrected to Dourakis, Spyros].
98: Hunter D, Frumkin A. Adverse reactions to vitamin E and aloe vera preparations after dermabrasion and chemical peel. Cutis. 1991 Mar;47(3):193-6.
99: Vinson JA, Al Kharrat H, Andreoli L. Effect of Aloe vera preparations on the human bioavailability of vitamins C and E. Phytomedicine. 2005 Nov;12(10):760-5.
100: Lee A, Chui PT, Aun CS, Gin T, Lau AS. Possible interaction between sevoflurane and Aloe vera. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Oct;38(10):1651-4.
101: Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S. Modulatory effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on oxidative stress in rats treated with streptozotocin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;57(2):241-6.
102: Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S. Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2005 Jan-Feb;57(1):90-6.
103: Wu JH, Xu C, Shan CY, Tan RX. Antioxidant properties and PC12 cell protective effects of APS-1, a polysaccharide from Aloe vera var. chinensis. Life Sci. 2006 Jan 2;78(6):622-30.
104: Ozsoy N, Candoken E, Akev N. Implications for degenerative disorders: Antioxidative activity, total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and beta-tocopherol in Aloe vera. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009 Apr;2(2):99-106.
105: Wei A, Shibamoto T. Antioxidant/lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jun 23;58(12):7218-25.
106: Yagi A, Kabash A, Mizuno K, Moustafa SM, Khalifa TI, Tsuji H. Radical scavenging glycoprotein inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane A2 synthase from aloe vera gel. Planta Med. 2003 Mar;69(3):269-71.
107: Hu Y, Xu J, Hu Q. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Dec 17;51(26):7788-91.
108: Wang Y, Cao L, Du G. [Protective effects of Aloe vera extract on mitochondria of neuronal cells and rat brain]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010 Feb;35(3):364-8. Abstract.
109: Mirshafiey A, Aghily B, Namaki S, Razavi A, Ghazavi A, Ekhtiari P, Mosayebi G. Therapeutic approach by Aloe vera in experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010 Mar 17.
110: Im SA, Lee YR, Lee YH, Lee MK, Park YI, Lee S, Kim K, Lee CK. In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel. Arch Pharm Res. 2010 Mar;33(3):451-6.
111: 82: Rishi P, Rampuria A, Tewari R, Koul A. Phytomodulatory potentials of Aloe vera against Salmonella OmpR-mediated inflammation. Phytother Res. 2008 Aug;22(8):1075-82.
112: Liu C, Leung MY, Koon JC, Zhu LF, Hui YZ, Yu B, Fung KP. Macrophage activation by polysaccharide biological response modifier isolated from Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Nov;6(11):1634-41.
113: Djeraba A, Quere P. In vivo macrophage activation in chickens with Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000 May;22(5):365-72.
114: Womble D, Helderman JH. Enhancement of allo-responsiveness of human lymphocytes by acemannan (Carrisyn). Int J Immunopharmacol. 1988;10(8):967-74.
115: t'Hart LA, van den Berg AJ, Kuis L, van Dijk H, Labadie RP. An anti-complementary polysaccharide with immunological adjuvant activity from the leaf parenchyma gel of Aloe vera. Planta Med. 1989 Dec;55(6):509-12.
116: Stuart RW, Lefkowitz DL, Lincoln JA, Howard K, Gelderman MP, Lefkowitz SS. Upregulation of phagocytosis and candidicidal activity of macrophages exposed to the immunostimulant acemannan. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1997 Feb;19(2):75-82.
117: Lee MJ, Lee OH, Yoon SH, Lee SK, Chung MH, Park YI, Sung CK, Choi JS, Kim KW. In vitro angiogenic activity of Aloe vera gel on calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. Arch Pharm Res. 1998 Jun;21(3):260-5.
118: Choi S, Kim KW, Choi JS, Han ST, Park YI, Lee SK, Kim JS, Chung MH. Angiogenic activity of beta-sitosterol in the ischaemia/reperfusion-damaged brain of Mongolian gerbil. Planta Med. 2002 Apr;68(4):330-5.
119: Kosif R, Aktas RG. Investigation of the effects of Aloe barbadensis on rat ovaries: a preliminary study. J Med Food. 2009 Dec;12(6):1393-7.
120: Cárdenas C, Quesada AR, Medina MA. Evaluation of the anti-angiogenic effect of aloe-emodin. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Dec;63(24):3083-9.
121: Eamlamnam K, Patumraj S, Visedopas N, Thong-Ngam D. Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr 7;12(13):2034-9.
122: Yusuf S, Agunu A, Diana M. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul;93(1):33-7.
123: Gbadegesin MA, Odunola OA, Akinwumi KA, Osifeso OO. Comparative hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of sodium arsenite and three petroleum products in experimental Swiss Albino Mice: the modulatory effects of Aloe vera gel. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Oct;47(10):2454-7.
124: Kim SH, Cheon HJ, Yun N, Oh ST, Shin E, Shim KS, Lee SM. Protective effect of a mixture of Aloe vera and Silybum marianum against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis. J Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Jan;109(1):119-27.
125: Chandan BK, Saxena AK, Shukla S, Sharma N, Gupta DK, Suri KA, Suri J, Bhadauria M, Singh B. Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe barbadensis Mill. against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 22;111(3):560-6.
126: Etim OE, Farombi EO, Usoh IF, Akpan EJ. The protective effect of aloe vera juice on lindane induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Oct;19(4):337-40.
127: Fan YJ, Li M, Yang WL, Qin L, Zou J. [Protective effect of extracts from Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg. on experimental hepatic lesions and a primary clinical study on the injection of in patients with hepatitis]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1989 Dec;14(12):746-8. Abstracts.
128: Goyal PK, Gehlot P. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on Swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2009;28(1):53-61.
129: Lee CK, Han SS, Mo YK, Kim RS, Chung MH, Park YI, Lee SK, Kim YS. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells by Aloe vera gel components. Immunopharmacology. 1997 Oct;37(2-3):153-62.
130: Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM, Byrne ME. Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1989 Nov;79(11):559-62.
131: Somboonwong J, Thanamittramanee S, Jariyapongskul A, Patumraj S. Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats. J Med Assoc Thai. 2000 Apr;83(4):417-25.
132: Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G. Influence of Aloe vera on collagen turnover in healing of dermal wounds in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1998 Sep;36(9):896-901.
133: Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G. Influence of Aloe vera on collagen characteristics in healing dermal wounds in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Apr;181(1-2):71-6.
134: Rodríguez-Bigas M, Cruz NI, Suárez A. Comparative evaluation of aloe vera in the management of burn wounds in guinea pigs. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1988 Mar;81(3):386-9.
135: Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G. Influence of Aloe vera on the glycosaminoglycans in the matrix of healing dermal wounds in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jan;59(3):179-86.
136: Davis RH, Parker WL, Samson RT, Murdoch DP. Isolation of a stimulatory system in an Aloe extract. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1991 Sep;81(9):473-8.
137: Mendonça FA, Passarini Junior JR, Esquisatto MA, Mendonça JS, Franchini CC, Santos GM. Effects of the application of Aloe vera (L.) and microcurrent on the healing of wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2009 Mar-Apr;24(2):150-5.
138: Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G. Influence of aloe vera on the healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jan;59(3):195-201.
139: Choi SW, Son BW, Son YS, Park YI, Lee SK, Chung MH. The wound-healing effect of a glycoprotein fraction isolated from aloe vera. Br J Dermatol. 2001 Oct;145(4):535-45.
140: Hosseinimehr SJ, Khorasani G, Azadbakht M, Zamani P, Ghasemi M, Ahmadi A. Effect of aloe cream versus silver sulfadiazine for healing burn wounds in rats. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2010;18(1):2-7.
141: Kaufman T, Kalderon N, Ullmann Y, Berger J. Aloe vera gel hindered wound healing of experimental second-degree burns: a quantitative controlled study. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1988 Mar-Apr;9(2):156-9.
142: Takzare N, Hosseini MJ, Hasanzadeh G, Mortazavi H, Takzare A, Habibi P. Influence of Aloe Vera gel on dermal wound healing process in rat. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2009 Jan;19(1):73-7.
143: Muller MJ, Hollyoak MA, Moaveni Z, Brown TL, Herndon DN, Heggers JP. Retardation of wound healing by silver sulfadiazine is reversed by Aloe vera and nystatin. Burns. 2003 Dec;29(8):834-6.
144: Jain A, Basal E. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs. Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):34-8.
145: Davis RH, DiDonato JJ, Johnson RW, Stewart CB. Aloe vera, hydrocortisone, and sterol influence on wound tensile strength and anti-inflammation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1994 Dec;84(12):614-21.
146: Davis RH, Donato JJ, Hartman GM, Haas RC. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1994 Feb;84(2):77-81.
147: Davis RH, Rosenthal KY, Cesario LR, Rouw GA. Processed Aloe vera administered topically inhibits inflammation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1989 Aug;79(8):395-7.
148: Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM, Byrne ME. Anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera against a spectrum of irritants. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1989 Jun;79(6):263-76.
149: Habeeb F, Stables G, Bradbury F, Nong S, Cameron P, Plevin R, Ferro VA. The inner gel component of Aloe vera suppresses bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cells. Methods. 2007 Aug;42(4):388-93.
150: Prabjone R, Thong-Ngam D, Wisedopas N, Chatsuwan T, Patumraj S. Anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the gastric microcirculation of Helicobacter pylori-infected rats. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2006;35(3):359-66.
151: Duansak D, Somboonwong J, Patumraj S. Effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte adhesion and TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in burn wounded rats. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2003;29(3-4):239-46.
152: Bezáková L, Oblozinský M, Sýkorová M, Paulíková I, Kostálová D. [Antilipoxygenase activity and the trace elements content of Aloe vera in relation to the therapeutical effect]. Ceska Slov Farm. 2005 Jan;54(1):43-6. Abstract.
153: Vázquez B, Avila G, Segura D, Escalante B. Antiinflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Dec;55(1):69-75.
154: Davis RH, Parker WL, Samson RT, Murdoch DP. The isolation of an active inhibitory system from an extract of aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1991 May;81(5):258-61.
155: Langmead L, Makins RJ, Rampton DS. Anti-inflammatory effects of aloe vera gel in human colorectal mucosa in vitro. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Mar 1;19(5):521-7.
156: Shilpakala SR, Prathiba J, Malathi R. Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to Aloe barbadensis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Nov-Dec;13(6):461-4.
157: Tamura N, Yoshida T, Miyaji K, Sugita-Konishi Y, Hattori M. Inhibition of infectious diseases by components from Aloe vera. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Apr 23;73(4):950-3.
158: Habeeb F, Shakir E, Bradbury F, Cameron P, Taravati MR, Drummond AJ, Gray AI, Ferro VA. Screening methods used to determine the anti-microbial properties of Aloe vera inner gel. Methods. 2007 Aug;42(4):315-20.
159: Ferro VA, Bradbury F, Cameron P, Shakir E, Rahman SR, Stimson WH. In vitro susceptibilities of Shigella flexneri and Streptococcus pyogenes to inner gel of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Mar;47(3):1137-9.
160: George D, Bhat SS, Antony B. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of aloe vera tooth gel and two popular commercial toothpastes: An in vitro study. Gen Dent. 2009 May-Jun;57(3):238-41.
161: Moody JO, Adebiyi OA, Adeniyi BA. Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)? J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 May;92(1):57-60.
162: Yun N, Lee CH, Lee SM. Protective effect of Aloe vera on polymicrobial sepsis in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Jun;47(6):1341-8.
163: Dutta A, Sarkar D, Gurib-Fakim A, Mandal C, Chatterjee M. In vitro and in vivo activity of Aloe vera leaf exudate in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitol Res. 2008 May;102(6):1235-42.
164: Dutta A, Bandyopadhyay S, Mandal C, Chatterjee M. Aloe vera leaf exudate induces a caspase-independent cell death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes. J Med Microbiol. 2007 May;56(Pt 5):629-36.
165: Dutta A, Mandal G, Mandal C, Chatterjee M. In vitro antileishmanial activity of Aloe vera leaf exudate: a potential herbal therapy in leishmaniasis. Glycoconj J. 2007 Jan;24(1):81-6.
166: Kim K, Kim H, Kwon J, Lee S, Kong H, Im SA, Lee YH, Lee YR, Oh ST, Jo TH, Park YI, Lee CK, Kim K. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of processed Aloe vera gel in a mouse model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine. 2009 Sep;16(9):856-63.
167: Rajasekaran S, Sriram N, Arulselvan P, Subramanian S. Effect of aloe vera leaf gel extract on membrane bound phosphatases and lysosomal hydrolases in rats with streptozotocin diabetes. Pharmazie. 2007 Mar;62(3):221-5.
168: Rajasekaran S, Ravi K, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S. Beneficial effects of aloe vera leaf gel extract on lipid profile status in rats with streptozotocin diabetes. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Mar;33(3):232-7.
169: Pérez YY, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Zamilpa A, Hernández-Valencia M, Alarcón-Aguilar FJ, Tortoriello J, Román-Ramos R. Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice. Am J Chin Med. 2007;35(6):1037-46.
170: Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S. Mineral contents of aloe vera leaf gel and their role on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Winter;108(1-3):185-95.
171: Beppu H, Shimpo K, Chihara T, Kaneko T, Tamai I, Yamaji S, Ozaki S, Kuzuya H, Sonoda S. Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20;103(3):468-77.
172: Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Ravi K, Subramanian S. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats. J Med Food. 2004 Spring;7(1):61-6.
173: Can A, Akev N, Ozsoy N, Bolkent S, Arda BP, Yanardag R, Okyar A. Effect of Aloe vera leaf gel and pulp extracts on the liver in type-II diabetic rat models. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 May;27(5):694-8.
174: Bolkent S, Akev N, Ozsoy N, Sengezer-Inceli M, Can A, Alper O, Yanardag R. Effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. leaf gel and pulp extracts on kidney in type-II diabetic rat models. Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Jan;42(1):48-52.
175: Okyar A, Can A, Akev N, Baktir G, Sütlüpinar N. Effect of Aloe vera leaves on blood glucose level in type I and type II diabetic rat models. Phytother Res. 2001 Mar;15(2):157-61.
176: Guo J, Xiao B, Liu Q, Gong Z, Le Y. Suppression of C-myc expression associates with anti-proliferation of aloe-emodin on gastric cancer cells. Cancer Invest. 2008 May;26(4):369-74.
177: Chaudhary G, Saini MR, Goyal PK. Chemopreventive potential of Aloe vera against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis in mice. Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Dec;6(4):405-12.
178: Shamaan NA, Kadir KA, Rahmat A, Ngah WZ. Vitamin C and aloe vera supplementation protects from chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. Nutrition. 1998 Nov-Dec;14(11-12):846-52.
179: Niciforovic A, Adzic M, Spasic SD, Radojcic MB. Antitumor effects of a natural anthracycline analog (Aloin) involve altered activity of antioxidant enzymes in HeLaS3 cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Aug;6(8):1200-5.
180: Akev N, Turkay G, Can A, Gurel A, Yildiz F, Yardibi H, Ekiz EE, Uzun H. Tumour preventive effect of Aloe vera leaf pulp lectin (Aloctin I) on Ehrlich ascites tumours in mice. Phytother Res. 2007 Nov;21(11):1070-5.
181: Akev N, Turkay G, Can A, Gurel A, Yildiz F, Yardibi H, Ekiz EE, Uzun H. Effect of Aloe vera leaf pulp extract on Ehrlich ascites tumours in mice. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007 Apr;16(2):151-7.
182: Chen SH, Lin KY, Chang CC, Fang CL, Lin CP. Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Nov;45(11):2296-303.
183: Lin JG, Chen GW, Li TM, Chouh ST, Tan TW, Chung JG. Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cells through the p53 dependent apoptotic pathway. J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):343-7.
184: Lian LH, Park EJ, Piao HS, Zhao YZ, Sohn DH. Aloe emodin-induced apoptosis in t-HSC/Cl-6 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jun;96(6):495-502.
185: Acevedo-Duncan M, Russell C, Patel S, Patel R. Aloe-emodin modulates PKC isozymes, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in U-373MG glioma cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Dec 20;4(14):1775-84.
186: Wasserman L, Avigad S, Beery E, Nordenberg J, Fenig E. The effect of aloe emodin on the proliferation of a new merkel carcinoma cell line. Am J Dermatopathol. 2002 Feb;24(1):17-22.
187: Pecere T, Gazzola MV, Mucignat C, Parolin C, Vecchia FD, Cavaggioni A, Basso G, Diaspro A, Salvato B, Carli M, Palù G. Aloe-emodin is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors. Cancer Res. 2000 Jun 1;60(11):2800-4.
188: Lee KH, Hong HS, Lee CH, Kim CH. Induction of apoptosis in human leukaemic cell lines K562, HL60 and U937 by diethylhexylphthalate isolated from Aloe vera Linne. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 Aug;52(8):1037-41.
189: Lee KH, Kim JH, Lim DS, Kim CH. Anti-leukaemic and anti-mutagenic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate isolated from Aloe vera Linne. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 May;52(5):593-8.
190: Im SA, Oh ST, Song S, Kim MR, Kim DS, Woo SS, Jo TH, Park YI, Lee CK. Identification of optimal molecular size of modified Aloe polysaccharides with maximum immunomodulatory activity. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Feb;5(2):271-9.
191: Chen XD, Wu BY, Jiang Q, Wang SB, Huang LY, Wang ZC. [Influence of polysaccharide from Aloe vera on the proliferation of the human epithelial cells cultured in vitro]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2005 Dec;21(6):430-3. Abstract.
192: Lee JK, Lee MK, Yun YP, Kim Y, Kim JS, Kim YS, Kim K, Han SS, Lee CK. Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001 Jul;1(7):1275-84.
193: Takahashi M, Kitamoto D, Asikin Y, Takara K, Wada K. Liposomes encapsulating Aloe vera leaf gel extract significantly enhance proliferation and collagen synthesis in human skin cell lines. J Oleo Sci. 2009;58(12):643-50.
194: Lee CK, Han SS, Shin YK, Chung MH, Park YI, Lee SK, Kim YS. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity by Aloe vera gel components. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1999 May;21(5):303-10.
195: Vath P, Wamer WG, Falvey DE. Photochemistry and phototoxicity of aloe emodin. Photochem Photobiol. 2002 Apr;75(4):346-52.
196: Kar A, Panda S, Bharti S. Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):281-5.
197: Yu H, Dong Z, Yang Z. [Molecular biological study of aloe vera in the treatment of experimental allergic rhinitis in rat]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2002 May;16(5):229-31. Abstract.
198: Lim BO, Seong NS, Choue RW, Kim JD, Lee HY, Kim SY, Yu BP, Jeon TI, Park DK. Efficacy of dietary aloe vera supplementation on hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Aug;49(4):292-6.
199: Macias CA, Kameneva MV, Tenhunen JJ, Puyana JC, Fink MP. Survival in a rat model of lethal hemorrhagic shock is prolonged following resuscitation with a small volume of a solution containing a drag-reducing polymer derived from aloe vera. Shock. 2004 Aug;22(2):151-6.
200: Kameneva MV, Wu ZJ, Uraysh A, Repko B, Litwak KN, Billiar TR, Fink MP, Simmons RL, Griffith BP, Borovetz HS. Blood soluble drag-reducing polymers prevent lethality from hemorrhagic shock in acute animal experiments. Biorheology. 2004;41(1):53-64.
201: Sakai T, Repko BM, Griffith BP, Waters JH, Kameneva MV. I.V. infusion of a drag-reducing polymer extracted from aloe vera prolonged survival time in a rat model of acute myocardial ischaemia. Br J Anaesth. 2007 Jan;98(1):23-8.
202: Jittapiromsak N, Sahawat D, Banlunara W, Sangvanich P, Thunyakitpisal P. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Jun;16(6):1997-2006.
203: Ballam L, Heard CM. Pre-treatment with Aloe vera juice does not enhance the in vitro permeation of ketoprofen across skin. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;23(2):113-6.
204: Cole L, Heard C. Skin permeation enhancement potential of Aloe Vera and a proposed mechanism of action based upon size exclusion and pull effect. Int J Pharm. 2007 Mar 21;333(1-2):10-6.
205: Chen W, Lu Z, Viljoen A, Hamman J. Intestinal drug transport enhancement by Aloe vera. Planta Med. 2009 May;75(6):587-95.
206: Vogler BK, Ernst E. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. Br J Gen Pract. 1999 Oct;49(447):823-8.
207: Ernst E, Pittler MH, Stevinson C. Complementary/alternative medicine in dermatology: evidence-assessed efficacy of two diseases and two treatments. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(5):341-8.
208: Feily A, Namazi MR. Aloe vera in dermatology: a brief review. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Feb;144(1):85-91.

Date of page update: July 24, 2010.


The information contained in this website does not replace professional advice and guidance from the attending physician, to whom you should consult before making decisions about your health problems. MEDIZZINE cannot warrant or assume any responsibility for the accuracy or comprehensiveness of the information provided. Conversely, MEDIZZINE recognizes that the information provided is not exhaustive and, therefore, does not expose all of the available information and, in any case, cannot replace information and criteria that your doctor may provide you.